A Very Short Proof That Skepticism-Resistant Knowledge Exists.

By Robert Hanna

“Young Woman With Book,” by Aleksandr Deineka (1934)


You can also download and read or share the complete longer essay from which the short essay directly below has been extracted, “Caveat Lector: Six Investigations in The Philosophy of Reading,” HERE.


1. You, the reader of this very sentence, can’t either coherently or self-consistently deny that it’s self-evidently true that you’re reading this very sentence.

2. Therefore, as soon as you’ve read sentence 1, then you have skepticism-resistant knowledge of it.

3. Therefore, skepticism-resistant knowledge exists. QED[i]


[i] For the purposes of this very short essay, let’s suppose that the real person represented in Deineka’s painting, just like you, is also reading the three-step proof written on this very page. Then at least two people in this thoroughly nonideal natural and social world have nevertheless actually achieved skepticism-resistant knowledge. Indeed, any rational human reader of this three-step proof will thereby achieve skepticism-resistant knowledge. Elsewhere I’ve called such skepticism-resistant knowledge, whether a posteriori or a priori, high bar knowledge (Hanna, 2015: esp. ch. 1 and chs. 6–8).


(Hanna, 2015). Hanna, R. Cognition, Content, and the A Priori: A Study in the Philosophy of Mind and Knowledge. THE RATIONAL HUMAN CONDITION, Vol. 5. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Also available online in preview HERE.


Mr Nemo, W, X, Y, & Z, Monday 15 August 2022

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Mr Nemo

Mr Nemo


Formerly Captain Nemo. A not-so-very-angry, but still unemployed, full-time philosopher-nobody.